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植物营养体胎生研究进展
艾星梅, 陈龙清, 李宇航, 辛宗洋, 谢欢
西南林业大学园林园艺学院, 国家林业局西南风景园林工程技术研究中心, 昆明 650224
摘要:  营养体胎生是植物体上的营养器官如胞芽、珠芽、不定芽、叶片等成熟后不脱落,直接吸取母体营养继续生长发育,在自然状态下脱离形成新的植株。营养体胎生植物的种类较多,大多是在长期适应干旱、冷凉、高温等恶劣环境条件下进化出的结果,是繁育途径的一个重要补充。与传统的无性繁殖方式相比,繁殖系数较高,可实现高效再生,且病毒感染率较低,在实际生产中具有重要的应用价值。从胎生器官的形态发育、生理生化、分子水平和再生繁殖特性4个方面进行了综述,目前研究还处于起步阶段,对引起胎生现象的本质还没有得到系统解答,指出存在的不足,并对未来的研究方向进行了展望,关于营养体胎生形成机理的调控和重要功能基因的挖掘,以及胎生苗如何适应新的环境变化也是未来的研究方向。因此,研究营养体胎生适应性现象的本质及其进化将为植物种群的繁衍、规模化生产和应用、生物多样性保护等提供理论依据。
关键词:  营养体胎生  形态解剖  生理生化  基因调控  繁殖
DOI:10.11926/jtsb.4124
分类号:
基金项目:云南省教育厅科研基金项目(2019J0197);博士科研启动基金项目(111806);国家林业局西南风景园林工程技术研究中心项目(2016-48)资助
Research Progress of Vegetative Vivipary in Plants
AI Xing-mei, CHEN Long-qing, LI Yu-hang, XIN Zong-yang, XIE Huang
College of Landscape and Horticulture, Southwest Landscape Architecture Engineering Research Center of State Forestry Administration, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China
Abstract:  Vegetative vivipary in plants refers to some organs, such as gemmae, bulbils, adventitious buds and leaves, which don't fall off after maturation, they absorb the maternal nutrition directly and continue to grow and develop, then break off and form new plants in the natural state. There are many kinds of viviparous plants, most of which are the results of long-term adaptation to harsh environment, such as drought, cold and high temperature at long term, it is an important supplement of breeding pathway. Compared with the traditional asexual reproduction, vegetative vivipary has higher propagation coefficient and regeneration, lower rate of virus infection, so it has an important application value in production. The four aspects, including morphological anatomy, physiology and biochemistry, molecular biology and reproduction characteristics of viviparous organs, were reviewed. At present, the researches were still in the early stage and the nature of vivipary phenomenon has not been systematically explained, the shortcomings in current studies are pointed out and the future directions are prospected which conclude the regulation mechanism and important functional genes of vegetative vivipary, and how to adapt the new environmental change is also the future research direction of viviparous plants. So systematic studies of vivipary not only help to understand the nature and evolutionary process of adaptive phenomenon, but also provide a theoretical basis for population propogation, mass production and wide application, and biodiversity conservation of viviparous plants.
Key words:  Vegetative vivipary  Morphological anatomy  Physical-biochemistry  Gene regulation  Reproduction

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