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一种改进的中国水资源空间网格化方法
郭兵1,2,3,4, 陈淑婷1, 杨飞5, 范业稳3, 杨潇1, 张慧1, 何田莉1
1.山东理工大学建筑工程学院, 山东 淄博 255000;2.华东师范大学地理信息科学教育部重点实验室, 上海 200241;3.武汉大学测绘遥感信息工程国家重点实验室, 武汉 433079;4.区域开发与环境响应湖北省重点实验室, 武汉 430062;5.资源与环境信息系统国家重点实验室, 中国科学院地理研究所, 北京 100101
摘要:  为揭示中国水资源的时空分布格局,引入降水量、干燥度、蒸散发、坡度、植被覆盖度、集水区等6个因素,结合分区权重赋值法,提出了一种改进的对中国水资源空间分配模型。结果表明: 基于二级流域的改进水资源空间分配模型对我国具有较高的适用性,其中在三级流域和省级行政单元上的空间分配总体误差分别为7.89%和7.25%。相比黄河流域、淮河流域和西北诸河流域,长江流域、松花江流域和东南诸河流域的水资源空间分配精度更优,其原因在于该区域的水资源空间分布受自然因素(降水量、蒸散发等)影响更为显著。中国水资源空间分布从西北到东南呈增长趋势,这与降水的空间格局基本吻合。南方诸河流域的水资源量主要来源于降水,而冰川融水则是西北诸河流域及多数内陆河流域的主要水源。水资源与国内生产总值(GDP)密度之间的关系随城市规模和地理位置发生变化。这些可为区域水资源管理提供科学依据和数据依据。
关键词:  水资源  网格法  二级流域  空间分布  降水
DOI:10.11926/jtsb.3966
分类号:
基金项目:山东省自然科学基金项目(ZR2018BD001);国家重点研发计划项目(2017YFA0604804);华东师范大学地理信息科学教育部重点实验室开放基金项目(KLGIS2017A02);武汉大学测绘遥感信息工程国家重点实验室开放基金项目(17I04);区域开发与环境响应湖北省重点实验室开放基金项目(2017(B)003);山东省高等学校科学技术计划项目(J18KA181)资助
An Improved Gridded Water Resource Distribution for China
GUO Bing1,2,3,4, CHEN Shu-ting1, YANG Fei5, FAN Ye-wen3, YANG Xiao1, ZHANG Hui1, HE Tian-li1
1.School of Civil Architectural Engineering, Shandong University of Technology, Zibo 255000, Shandong, China;2.Key Laboratory of Geographic Information Science(Ministry of Education), East China Normal University, Shanghai 200241, China;3.State Key Laboratory of Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079, China;4.Hubei Key Laboratory of Regional Development and Environmental Response(Hubei University), Wuhan 430062, China;5.State Key Laboratory of Resources and Environmental Information System, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
Abstract:  In order to reveal the spatial temporal distribution pattern of water resource in China, six factors, including precipitation, aridity, evapotranspiration, slope, vegetation, and catchment area, were introduced, an improved water resource gridded model for China was proposed based on partition-weight assignment method. The results showed that the improved water resource gridded method based on second-order basin had high applicability for China, with the overall SE of 7.89% for third-order basins and 7.25% for provincial admini- strative units. The spatial allocation precision of Yangtze River basin, Songhua River basin, and southeastern River Basins was better than that of Yellow River Basin, Huaihe River Basin, and northwestern River Basins, which was significantly influenced by the nature factors, such as precipitation and evapotranspiration. There was a rising tendency from northwest to southeast in spatial distribution of water resources, which was basically consistent with the spatial pattern of precipitation. The water resources of the southern River Basins mainly came from precipitation, and the glacial melt water was the main water sources of the northwestern River Basins and most inland River Basins. The relationship between the water resource and GDP density differed with the urban city scale and geographical locations. These could provide scientific bases and decision support for the management of regional water resource.
Key words:  Water resource  Gridded method  Second-order basin  Spatial distribution  Precipitation

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