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滨豇豆的生态生物学特征
黄耀1,2, 刘楠1, 简曙光1, 王俊1, 任海1
1.中国科学院华南植物园, 广东省应用植物学重点实验室, 广州 510650;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:  为探究滨豇豆(Vigna marina)的生态生物学特性及其对热带珊瑚岛的适应性,对西沙群岛野生滨豇豆的叶片形态解剖结构、生理特征和营养成分进行了分析。结果表明,滨豇豆具有叶片厚、比叶面积小、栅栏组织发达、气孔密度大、气孔面积指数大等形态特征,对减少蒸腾、保持水分起到重要作用。滨豇豆叶片的SOD活性和脯氨酸(Pro)含量高,丙二醛(MDA)含量低,表明抗氧化能力较强;滨豇豆叶片养分含量适中但其生境土壤养分含量很低,说明其对养分有着良好的吸收利用能力,利于适应贫瘠的环境。因此,滨豇豆具有能够较好地适应珊瑚岛礁高温、干旱、贫瘠生境的形态解剖结构和生理特征,加之其具有良好的固氮和养分利用能力,可作为热带珊瑚岛植被恢复的工具种。
关键词:  滨豇豆  叶片  生态学  生理  固氮  西沙群岛
DOI:10.11926/jtsb.3923
分类号:
基金项目:中国科学院A类战略性先导科技专项(XDA13020500);NSFC-广东联合基金(U1701246);广州市科技计划项目(201710010137)资助
Ecological and Biological Characteristics of Vigna marina
Huang Yao1,2, Liu Nan1, Jian Shu-guang1, WANG Jun1, Ren Hai1
1.Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Applied Botany, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:  In order to understand the bio-ecological characters of Vigna marina and its adaptability to the tropical coral island, the anatomical structure, physiological characteristics and nutritional components of the leaves were studied. The results showed that V. marina had thick leaves, low SLA, well-developed palisade tissue, high stomatal density and high stomatal area index, which played an important role in decreasing transpiration and maintaining moisture. The SOD and POD activities in leaves were high, while the MDA content was low, showing strong antioxidant capacity. The content of nutrients in leaves of V. marina was moderate, but that in soil was low, indicating that V. marina had a good ability to absorb and utilize nutrients, which was beneficial to adapt to the barren environment. Therefore, Vigna marina can adapt well to the habitat of high temperature, drought and high salinity. It can be used in wind-break, sand-fixation and vegetation restoration in tropical coral islands.
Key words:  Vigna marina  Leaf  Ecology  Physiology  Nitrogen fixation  Paracel Island

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