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授粉方式对铁皮石斛种质座果及种子萌发的影响
王聪1,2, 何生根3, 段俊4
1. 中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650;2. 仲恺农业工程学院, 广州 510225;3.仲恺农业工程学院, 广州 510225;4.中国科学院华南植物园, 广州 510650
摘要:  为进行铁皮石斛(Dendrobium officinale)的良种选育和种苗生产,对46个铁皮石斛种质进行人工授粉试验,研究了不同授粉方式的授粉成功率、座果率和种子的萌发能力。结果表明,4种授粉方式的授粉成功率明显不同,不同种质间的授粉成功率可达100%,且座果率普遍较高。只有31.3%的种质可以成功自花授粉,且座果率相差较大。同株异花授粉和种质内异株授粉的成功率和座果率均介于上述二者之间。授粉后所得种子的萌发率和萌发速度在4种授粉方式间也呈现与授粉成功率和座果率一致的趋势。这表明在铁皮石斛种质中存在自交不亲和现象,因此以不同产地来源的铁皮石斛种质为亲本进行人工授粉,可大大提高授粉的成功率和座果率,以及后代种子的萌发能力。
关键词:  铁皮石斛  种质  人工授粉  座果率  萌发率
DOI:10.11926/jtsb.3794
分类号:
基金项目:广州市科技计划项目(201704020192);中国科学院STS项目(2017-2018)资助
Effects of Artificial Pollination on Fruit Setting and Seed Germination of Dendrobium officinale Germplasms
WANG Cong1,2, HE Sheng-gen3, DUAN Jun4
1. South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China;2. Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China;3.Zhongkai University of Agriculture and Engineering, Guangzhou 510225, China;4.South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China
Abstract:  In order to selective breeding and seedling production of Dendrobium officinale, the pollination success rate, fruit-set rate and seed germination rate of 46 germplasms were studied by using artificial pollination, including autogamy, geitonogamy, crossing among different plants within the same germplasm and crossing among different germplasms. The results showed that the pollination was successful by crossing between different germplasms, and the fruit setting rate were high. While there were only 31.3% germplasms successful by self-pollination, and the fruit setting rate had markedly difference. The pollination success rate and fruit setting rate of geitonogamy and crossing among different plants within the same germplasm were both intervenient. And the same changes were observed in seed germination rate and speed as well as the fruit setting rate among 4 types of pollinations. These indicated that self-incompatibility existed in D. officinale germplasms, so that the pollination success rate, fruit setting rate and seed germination rate could increase markedly by crossing between different germplasms.
Key words:  Dendrobium officinale  Germplasm  Artificial pollination  Fruit setting rate  Germination rate

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