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星油藤蒴果及种子的性状变异研究
李光友,徐建民
中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所,中国林业科学研究院热带林业研究所
摘要:  为进行星油藤(Plukenetia volubilis L.)良种选育,对其蒴果和种子的性状变异进行了研究。结果表明, 星油藤蒴果中4、5、6裂片果分别为49.71%、37.69%和12.60%,以4和5裂片为主;种子性状变异系数比果实的小,种子性状比果实更稳定。按果裂片类型统计,以4裂片的性状变异系数最小,性状也较为稳定,性状分化变异率有54.19%~95.63%来自蒴果间,而果实和种子性状分化变异率分别有79.81%~95.76%和67.66%~93.0%来源于裂片类型,性状分化变异受裂片数影响大,而相同裂片数不同蒴果间的变异程度低。不同裂片类型的果实与种子大多数性状间均存在显著或极显著差异,果裂数是造成性状差异的主要原因。种子萌发率以6裂片果 > 5裂片果 > 4裂片果,平均萌发率超过91%;种子萌发率与单果重、单果重与果形态指标、种子重与种子形态性状间均存在极显著正相关关系,其中单果重对果厚、种子重对种子宽的影响大于其它性状。综合分析星油藤以4裂片果的生物产量最高,平均果重和种子重均好于其他类型。
关键词:  星油藤  蒴果  裂片  种子  表型变异
DOI:10.11926/jtsb.3683
分类号:S685.99
基金项目:广东林业科技创新项目(2015KJCX008)资助
Study on Phenotype Variations of Capsules and Seeds in Plukenetia volubilis L.
LI Guang-you and XU Jian-min
Research Instutute of Tropical Forestry,CAF,Research Instutute of Tropical Forestry,CAF
Abstract:  In order to selective breeding of Plukenetia volubilis L., the phenotype variations of its capsules and seeds were studied. The results showed that the capsules of P. volubilis had 3 types with 4, 5 or 6 pods, accounting for 49.71%, 37.69% and 12.60%, respectively, and the capsules with 4 or 5 pods were dominate. The variation coefficients of seed traits were lower than that of capsules, suggested that the stability of seed traits was higher than that of capsules. The traits of 4-pod capsule were the most stable among three pod types, there were 54.19%~95.63% variation ratio of traits came from different individuals. There were 79.81%~95.76% and 67.66%~93.0% variation ratio of capsule and seed traits came from pod type, respectively, which indicate the pod number had high effect on variations of traits. The most of traits of capsule and seed had significant differences among different pod types, the number of pod was main reason for trait difference. The seed germination rate was above 91% in the order of 6-pod > 5-pod > 4-pod. There were significant positive correlation between seed germination rate and weight per fruit, fruit morphology traits, such as fruit diameter, fruit thickness and thickness of pod, and weight per fruit, weight per seed and seed morphology, such as length, width and thickness. In conclusion, Plukenetia volubilis with 4-pod fruit had the highest yield, mean fruit and seed weight were higher than other types.
Key words:  Plukenetia volubilis  Capsule  Pod  Seed  Phenotype variation

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