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刚竹属植物非笋期营养体分类的初步研究
赖广辉
安徽省广德县林业局
摘要:  刚竹属(Phyllostachys Sieb. et Zucc.)是一个主产于中国,大约有60 种的竹亚科大属,当前其属内种间的划分和鉴定主要依据秆箨和新秆的特征。然而,本属植物的笋期大多仅持续20~30 d,其他时间很难见到鲜笋或新鲜秆箨和新秆。应用现今流行的分种检索表和形态特征来鉴别处于非笋期营养生长状态的竹种往往作用不大,这就需要重新寻找更多的证据来解决这一问题。据长期的野外调查和栽培植物的定点观察,一些性状,如秆的节内距、小枝及叶的排列方式、叶耳及繸毛存在与否及其排列方式、叶舌是否伸出、叶片背面毛被状况等可以作为本属植物非笋期分类的重要依据。如果把握得恰当,利用这些性状和其他特征的组合可以在非笋期将本属现知的所有竹种划分开来,并据此编制了此期的分种检索表。
关键词:  竹亚科  刚竹属  非笋期  分类  检索表
DOI:10.11926/j.issn.1005-3395.2015.01.002
分类号:
基金项目:安徽省国际科技合作项目(02088011); 安徽省林业厅科研项目(2005-12-01)资助
A Prileminary Study on Species Classification of the Genus Phyllostachys (Gramineae: Bambusoideae) Based on Vegetative Characters in Nonsprouting State
LAI Guanghui
Forestry Bureau of Guangde County, Anhui Province
Abstract:  Phyllostachys Sieb. et Zucc., an important genus in Bambusoideae (Gramineae), consisting of ca. 60 species, is mainly distributed in China. In the present taxonomic literature, the classification and identification of species in the genus is mainly based on the characters of culm leaves and young culm. However, the sprouting period of most species, is between spring and summer for only 20-30 d, and it is rather difficult to observe fresh bamboo shoots or fresh culm-sheaths and young culms in the other seasons, so that both the present key to the species and the description of characters are poor for the identification of plants in non-sprouting state. To solve this problem, the more taxonomic evidence is needed to be looked for. On the basis of a long-term field investigation with a continued observation under cultivation in several Chinese bamboo gardens, some vegetative characters in non-sprouting state, such as length of culm-intranode, arrangement of branchlet and leaf, status of leaf-auricle and oral seta, status of leaf-ligule, and hair on the abaxial surface of leaf, etc. were discovered to play important roles in classification of the species rank. If the characters were used properly and combination with the others, all of species known in the genus in non-sprouting state could be efficiently distinguished. A key to species, according mainly to vegetative characters in non-sprouting state, is prepared here for field works.
Key words:  Bambusoideae  Phyllostachys Sieb. et Zucc.  Non-sprouting state  Classification  Identification key

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