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单瓣茉莉花发育过程中香精油成分及含量的变化
邓传远
福建农林大学园林学院
摘要:  为探讨单瓣茉莉(Jasminum sambac ‘Unifoliatum’)花发育过程中的香精油成分和含量的变化,采用顶空固相微萃取(HSSPME)和气相色谱-质谱联用(GC-MS)技术进行分析。结果表明,单瓣茉莉花在不同发育时期的香精油成分及含量差异明显,花蕾初期、花蕾成熟期、微开期、盛开期和盛开末期分别鉴定出7、25、27、23 和16 种化学成分。萜烯类化合物是花蕾初期的主要香精油成分,花蕾成熟期、微开期和盛开期的萜烯类、酯类和醇类化合物的含量均较高,是主要的香精油成分,但化合物种类和含量存在较大差异。盛开末期的主要香精油成分是萜烯类和杂环类化合物。单瓣茉莉鲜花的主要化学成分或前体物质在花蕾成熟期基本形成,大部分芳香成分在微开期的含量最高。因此,生产中提取茉莉花精油或熏茶时,应选择微开期的鲜花进行采摘,但在不能及时窨制花茶或提取香精油的情况下,选择花蕾成熟期的花采摘更为合适。
关键词:  单瓣茉莉    发育阶段  香精油
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1005-3395.2014.03.011
分类号:
基金项目:国家农业综合开发项目(350104201);福建省成果转化项目(2010-312);福州市科技计划项目(2010-JD-3);福建省教育厅科技项目(JB07084);福建青年科技人才创新项目(2004J009);福建省科技厅成果转化项目(2012S001)资助
Changes in Chemical Constituents and Contents of Essential Oils in Jasminum sambac ‘Unifoliatum’ during Flower Development Stages
dengchuanyuan
College of Landscape Architecture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University
Abstract:  In order to explore the chemical constituents of essential oils in Jasminum sambac ‘Unifoliatum’ during different flower development stages, the changes in chemical composition and contents of ‘Unifoliatum’ were analyzed by using head solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) methods. The results showed that the constituents and contents of essential oils in ‘Unifoliatum’ flowers were significantly different among different flower development stages. There were 7, 25, 27, 23 and 16 compounds, identified at early bud, mature bud, slight open, bloom and late bloom stages, respectively. Terpens were the major constituents at early bud stage. The contents of alcohols, esters and terpenes were high, which were the main constituents at mature bud stage, as well as at slight open and bloom stages, nevertheless the specific compounds and their contents were distinctly different at these stages. Terpens and heterocycle were the major constituents at late bloom stage. The main constituents or precursors of essential oils had basically formed at mature bud stage, and most of them reached maximum content at slight open stage. Therefore, the fresh flowers at slight open stage should be plucked for extracting jasmine essential oils or scenting tea. However, if extracting jasmine essential oils or scenting tea could not be timely, the best harvest time might be throughout the mature bud stage.
Key words:  Jasminum sambac ‘Unifoliatum’  Flower  Development stage  Essential oil

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