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霍山石斛种苗繁殖与栽培研究
钱文林,吴坤林,张建霞,曾宋君,段俊
中国科学院华南植物园,中国科学院华南植物园,中国科学院华南植物园,中国科学院华南植物园,中国科学院华南植物园
摘要:  为探讨霍山石斛(Dendrobium huoshanense C. Z. Tang et S. J. Cheng)的种苗繁殖与栽培技术,对霍山石斛的人工辅助授粉方式、无菌播种和试管苗移栽技术进行了研究。结果表明,人工辅助授粉时,栽培大棚内的异花授粉结果率可达65%以上,而自花授粉结果率不到4%,异花授粉的果实发育更好,但二者果实成熟所需时间基本一致。在无菌培养条件下,试管开花植株的异花授粉结果率可达到18.18%,并且果实成熟所需时间比栽培大棚的短67 d。不论是栽培大棚和无菌培养的异花授粉的成熟种子,还是在4℃下贮存2.5年的种子,无菌播种的萌发率均超过80%,比自花授粉的种子萌发率高20%左右。培养基中添加土豆、香蕉和苹果汁等添加物,对霍山石斛的壮苗均有明显的促进作用,以添加香蕉匀浆的效果最好。试管苗移栽的适宜基质为分层基质:下部3/10树皮+上部7/10木屑,其移栽成活率(78%)和萌芽数较高(每丛2.7个芽),这可能与该基质良好的保水性和透气性等有关。
关键词:  霍山石斛  人工授粉  组织培养  种植
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1005-3395.2013.03.009
分类号:
基金项目:广州市科技计划项目(2010Z1-E421)资助
Study on Propagation and Cultivation Technique of Dendrobium huoshanense Seedlings
qianwenlin,wu kunlin,zhang jiaxia,zeng song jun and dun jun
South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Science,South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Science,South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Science,South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Science,South China Botanic Garden, Chinese Academy of Science
Abstract:  Dendrobium huoshanense is a traditional precious and rare Chinese herbal medicine. In order to improve propagation and cultivation technique of seedlings, the way of artificial pollination, techniques of aseptic sowing and seedling transplanting were studied. The results showed that fruit setting rate of cross-pollination in greenhouse through artificial pollination exceeded 65%, while that of self-pollination was less than 4%, and the fruit development of cross-pollination is better than that of self-pollination. However, the time of fruit ripening was similar both cross-pollination and self-pollination. Under aseptic culture condition, the fruit setting rate of cross-pollination reached 18.18% through artificial pollination, and the fruit ripening time was shorter 67 days than that in greenhouse. The germination rate of seeds derived from cross-pollination and stored at 4℃ for 2.5 years could exceed 80%, which was higher 20% than that from self-pollination. The culture medium supplemented with juice of potato, banana and apple could promote seedling growth, and among them, banana juice was the best. The optimum transplant matrix was mixed with 3/10 bark in bottom and 7/10 sawdust on upper layer, the survival could reach 78% and the number of new buds was 2.7 per clump, which may relate to its good water retention and air permeability.
Key words:  Dendrobium huoshanense  Artificial pollination  In vitro culture  Transplant

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