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南宁的外来入侵植物
胡刚,张忠华
广西师范学院化学与生命科学学院,广西师范学院化学与生命科学学院
摘要:  根据野外调查及文献资料的整理,对南宁地区外来入侵植物的种类组成、危害现状、原产地、生活型和入侵生境等进行了分析。结果表明, 南宁现有外来入侵植物72 种,隶属于25 科55 属,其中菊科植物19 种,禾本科9 种, 苋科和茄科各6 种,分别占总种数的26.4%、12.5% 和8.3%。就危害程度而言,已造成严重危害的种数达12 种,中等危害有17 种,轻度危害有43 种。从原产地分析来看,源自美洲的入侵植物多达62 种,占总种数的86.1%,其次为源自非洲(5 种)、地中海(3 种)和欧洲(2 种)的植物。这些外来入侵植物中,草本植物种类最为丰富(57 种,占种总数的79.2%),其次为灌木(10 种,13.9%)和乔木(3 种,4.2%)。此外,南宁外来入侵植物的种类组成与广州、澳门和厦门等地的共有种数相对较多,而与青岛、北京和沈阳等地的共有种数较少。同时对外来入侵植物的防控对策进行了简要分析。
关键词:  外来入侵植物  原产地  生活型  防治对策  南宁
DOI:10.3969/j.issn.1005-3395.2012.05.011
分类号:
基金项目:广西教育厅科研基金项目(201106LX296);北部湾环境演变与资源利用省部共建教育部重点实验室(广西师范学院)开放课题基金项目资助
Alien Invasive Plants in Nanning, China
Hu Gang and Zhang zhonghua
School of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University,School of Chemistry and Life Science, Guangxi Teachers Education University
Abstract:  Based on the field investigation and literature review, species composition, damage degree, life form, origin and invasive habitat of alien invasive plants in Nanning, Guangxi Province, were studied. The results showed that there were 72 alien invasive species belonging to 55 genera of 25 families in Nanning, in which there were 19 species in Asteraceae, 9 species in Poaceae, 6 species in Amaranthaceae, and 6 species in Solanaceae, accounting for 26.4%, 12.5%, 8.3% and 8.3% to total species, respectively. Based on occurrence frequency and population density of alien invasive plants in Nanning, 12 species had caused serious harm (eg. Alternanthera philoxeroides, Eichhornia crassipes, Lantana camara, Parthenium hysterophorus and Wedelia trilobata), 17 and 43 species had caused middle and light harm, respectively. There were 62 species, accounting for 86.1%, origin from America, and 5 species from Africa, 3 species from Mediterranean Sea and 2 species from Europe. There were 57 herb, 10 shrub, 3 tree and 2 liana species, accounting for 79.2%, 13.9%, 4.2% and 2.8%, respectively. These species often distributed in high disturbed habitats with rich resources. The invasive species in Nanning shared much common to Guangzhou, Macau and Xiamen, whereas few to Qingdao, Beijing and Shenyang. The control strategies of alien invasive plants in Nanning were summarized.
Key words:  Alien invasive plant  Origin  Life form  Control strategy  Nanning

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