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  热带亚热带植物学报  2020, Vol. 28 Issue (1): 91-95  DOI: 10.11926/jtsb.4122

Cite this article as:  

熊雨洁, 秦起龙, 任强. 中国壳状地衣3新记录种[J]. 热带亚热带植物学报, 2020, 28(1): 91-95. DOI: 10.11926/jtsb.4122.
XIONG Yu-jie, QIN Qi-long, REN Qiang. Three Species of Crustose Lichens New to China[J]. Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 2020, 28(1): 91-95. DOI: 10.11926/jtsb.4122.

Foundation item

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 31750001)

Corresponding author

REN Qiang, E-mail:251593836@qq.com


XIONG Yu-jie(Born in 1995), female, graduate student, interesting in plant systematics and resource taxonomy.E-mail:yujiexiong@163.com

Article history

Received: 2019-07-15
Accepted: 2019-08-31
熊雨洁, 秦起龙, 任强     
山东师范大学生命科学学院, 济南 250014
摘要:报道了中国地衣3新记录种:Porina byssophilaSarcogyne privignaTrimmatothelopsis versipellis,提供了形态学、解剖学、化学特征描述以及地理分布相关信息。
关键词地衣型真菌    污核衣科    微孢衣科    
Three Species of Crustose Lichens New to China
XIONG Yu-jie, QIN Qi-long, REN Qiang    
College of Life Sciences, Shandong Normal University, Ji'nan 250014, China
Abstract: Porina byssophila, Sarcogyne privigna and Trimmatothelopsis versipellis collected from Mt. Kunyu in Shandong Province, are reported as new record species to China. The detailed description of morphology, anatomy, chemistry and the distribution are also given.
Key words: Lichenized fungi    Porinaceae    Acarosporaceae    

Mt. Kunyu is a group of scenic mountains in Shandong Peninsula, with warm temperate monsoon climate. The highest point is Taibo Peak, at a height of 923 meters above sea level. Due to a variety of comprehensive factors such as topography and climate, Mt. Kunyu is rich in vegetation resources as well as lichen species[1].

Since the 1970s, some experts have come to Mt. Kunyu for research, but paid less attention to lichens. Only thirteen species belonging to 10 genera and 7 families were reported from Mt. Kunyu up to now[2].

The lichen genus Porina Ach. (Porinaceae) contains more than 400 species, and grows on bark, rock or leaves in relatively sheltered habitats of the subtropical and tropical regions[35]. It is characterized by the presence of paraphyses, immersed perithecia, thin-walled and unitunicate asci with a truncate or rounded apical ring, 3 to more septate or submuriform to muriform ascospores[68]. In China, 46 species of Porina have been reported[9].

The genus Sarcogyne (Acarosporaceae) contains 34 species, and grows on rocky substrata in temperate and semi-arid regions[811]. It is characterized by a crustose and usually poorly developed thallus, reddish brown to black apothecia, lecideine exciple, simple paraphyses, red to dark brown epithecium, poly- sporous asci and ellipsoid to globose ascospores 3–6 µm in length[8, 10]. In China, nine species of Sarcogyne have been reported[1215].

The genus Trimmatothelopsis (Acarosporaceae) contains 9 species, and grows on rocks in Europe[16]. It is characterized by carbonaceous thallus, small- opening apothecia, multispored asci and saxicolous- calcifugous substrate[17].

1 Materials and methods

Specimens examined are deposited in SDNU (Lichen Section of Botanical Herbarium, Shandong Normal University). Morphology and anatomy were examined under a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZ) and a compound microscope (Olympus CX21). Morpho- logical and anatomical photographs were taken under Olympus SZX16 and BX61 with a digital camera DP72. Thallus and medulla were spot-tested with K (a 10% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide), C (a saturated solution of aqueous sodium hypochlorite) and I (Lugol's iodine). The lichen substances were identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) with solvent system C[18].

2 Taxonomic descriptions 2.1 Porina byssophila(Körb. ex Hepp) Zahlbr., Nat. Pflanzenfam: 66(1903) (Fig. 1)
Fig. 1 Porina byssophila (Q. Ren 5324). A: Epilithic thallus with hemispherical perithecia; B: Black perithecia, with a rounded or mildly pointed top; C: Section of perithecium; D: Ascus 8-spored; E-F: Ascospores hyaline, 3- or 5-septate, fusiform.

Thallus epilithic, olive-green to dark green, vivid green in water, rough, continous, ecorticate. Prothallus invisible. Perithecia intensive, hemi- spherical, covered by the thallus, 0.25–0.45 mm diam, with a rounded or mildly pointed top. Ostiole unspectacular or minutely papular. Involucrellum apical, purple-brown, K+ dark brown. Hyphae layer beside involucrellum dark greenish grey to green- black, 20–25 µm thick, containing algae. Centrum subglobose. Excipulum dark gray, 12.5–25 µm thick. Paraphyses simple, slender, 0.8 μm wide. Periphyses absent. Asci unitunicate, fusiform, 8-spored, 62–70 µm×13–15 µm, rounded to subacute at the apex. Ascospores hyaline, 3 or 5-septate, fusiform, usually with rounded ends, randomly arranged in the asci, (20–)23–30(–35) µm×4.5–5 µm. Conidia fusiform, 2.0–3.5 µm×0.8 µm.

Chemistry: Thallus and medulla K–, C–, KC–. Involucrellum K+ dark brown. No lichen products detected by TLC.

Substrate and ecology: On the aquatic and semi- aquatic calcareous or siliceous rocks.

Distribution: Great Britain, Ireland, Central Europe[19]. New to China.

Specimens Examined: China. Shandong: Mu- ping County, Mt. Kunyu, 326 m, 16 Oct. 2017, Q. Ren 5324, 5327 (SDNU).

Note: Porina fluminea P. M. McCarthy & P. N. Johnson resembles P. byssophila but differs in having only 3-septate ascospores, presence of the purple- violet to purple-brown pigment in the involucrellum, and growing on the siliceous rocks[20]. Another similar species P. linearis Leight. differs in the endolithic thallus[21].

2.2 Sarcogyne privigna(Ach.) A. Massal., Geneac. lich. (Verona): 10(1854) (Fig. 2)
Fig. 2 Sarcogyne privigna (Q. Ren 5202).A: Thallus with apothecia; B: Purplish brown apothecia with black margin; C: Section of apothecium; D: Amphithecium with crystals; E: Simple paraphyses; F: Polysporous ascus; G: Mature hyaline ascospores.

Thallus saxicolous, endolithic, inconspicuous. Photobiont chlorococcoid, 13 µm in diam. Apothecia round to ± irregular, 0.3–1.1 mm diam, disk red brown to purple, flat or concave. Pruina absent. Disk margin obviously raised, thick, black. True exciple carbonized, containing abundant crystals. Apothecium lecideine, epithecium yellow-brown, 10–12 µm high; hymenium colorless, 60–85 µm high; hypothecium pale brown, 20–30 µm high; proper exciple colorless, 15–20 µm wide. Paraphyses simple, long-celled, 2 µm wide, Asci 50–57 µm×10–16 µm, mostly 200-spored. Ascospores simple, hyaline, cylindrical to oblong, 4–5 µm×1– 1.5 µm. Conidia not observed.

Chemistry: Medulla and apothecia K–, C–, KC–, Pd–. No lichen products detected by TLC.

Substrate and ecology: On the siliceous rock near the stream.

Distribution: Europe, North America, Asia, Africa, Australia[11]. New to China.

Specimen examined: China. Shandong: Muping County, Mt. Kunyu, 210 m, 16 Oct. 2017, Q. Ren 5202 (SDNU).

Note: Sarcogyne clavus DC. differs S. privigna in its larger apothecia (up to 6 mm diam), taller hyme- nium (85–115 µm), dark brown hypothecium, thicker and crenulate exciple, and longer ascospores (4–6 µm)[8, 10, 22].

2.3 Trimmatothelopsis versipellis(Nyl.) Zschacke, Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl., Edn 2 (Leipzig) 9.1(1): 593 (1934) (Fig. 3)
Fig. 3 Trimmatothelopsis versipellis (Q. Ren 5389).A:Thallus with apothecia; B: Reddish brown to black apothecium; C: Section of apothecium; D: K/I+ blue Hymenium; E: Polysporous ascus; F: Mature hyaline ascospores.

Thallus crustose, epilithic, red-brown. Cortex pale brown, 30–40 μm high. Photobiont chloroccocoid. Medulla gray, 20–25 μm high. Ascomata first perithe- cioid then aspicilioid. Apothecia reddish brown to black, initially immersed, erumpent when mature, 0.3– 0.5 mm diam, with a carbonized external wall and a small-opening disk. Epithecium colorless, 10–15 µm high; hymenium colorless, 100–130 µm high, KOH/ I+ blue; hypothecium inconspicuous. Paraphyses simple, slender, 1.5–2 μm wide. Asci 65–100 μm×17.5–25 μm, with a non-amyloid tholus. Ascospores simple, 4.5– 6.25 μm×2.5–3 μm.

Chemistry: Thallus K-, C-, KC-. Hyme- nium KOH/I+ blue. No lichen products detected by TLC.

Substrate and ecology. Siliceous rocks beside streams.

Distribution. France[23]. New to China.

Specimen examined: China. Shandong: Muping, Mt. Kunyu, 280 m, 16 Oct. 2017, Q. Ren 5389 (SDNU).

Note: It is a new genus to China. Trimmato- thelopsis rhizobola Nyl. differs in a brown squamulose thallus with rhizines. T. gordensis Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Rouxarediffers in an endolithic thallus and perithecia with a prominent ostiole[1617].


We would like to thank Dr. A. Aptroot (ABL Herbarium, Soest, the Netherlands) for help during this research.

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