Mt. Kunyu is a group of scenic mountains in Shandong Peninsula, with warm temperate monsoon climate. The highest point is Taibo Peak, at a height of 923 meters above sea level. Due to a variety of comprehensive factors such as topography and climate, Mt. Kunyu is rich in vegetation resources as well as lichen species.
Since the 1970s, some experts have come to Mt. Kunyu for research, but paid less attention to lichens. Only thirteen species belonging to 10 genera and 7 families were reported from Mt. Kunyu up to now.
The lichen genus Porina Ach. (Porinaceae) contains more than 400 species, and grows on bark, rock or leaves in relatively sheltered habitats of the subtropical and tropical regions[3‒5]. It is characterized by the presence of paraphyses, immersed perithecia, thin-walled and unitunicate asci with a truncate or rounded apical ring, 3 to more septate or submuriform to muriform ascospores[6‒8]. In China, 46 species of Porina have been reported.
The genus Sarcogyne (Acarosporaceae) contains 34 species, and grows on rocky substrata in temperate and semi-arid regions[8‒11]. It is characterized by a crustose and usually poorly developed thallus, reddish brown to black apothecia, lecideine exciple, simple paraphyses, red to dark brown epithecium, poly- sporous asci and ellipsoid to globose ascospores 3–6 µm in length[8, 10]. In China, nine species of Sarcogyne have been reported[12‒15].
The genus Trimmatothelopsis (Acarosporaceae) contains 9 species, and grows on rocks in Europe. It is characterized by carbonaceous thallus, small- opening apothecia, multispored asci and saxicolous- calcifugous substrate.1 Materials and methods
Specimens examined are deposited in SDNU (Lichen Section of Botanical Herbarium, Shandong Normal University). Morphology and anatomy were examined under a stereomicroscope (Olympus SZ) and a compound microscope (Olympus CX21). Morpho- logical and anatomical photographs were taken under Olympus SZX16 and BX61 with a digital camera DP72. Thallus and medulla were spot-tested with K (a 10% aqueous solution of potassium hydroxide), C (a saturated solution of aqueous sodium hypochlorite) and I (Lugol's iodine). The lichen substances were identified using thin layer chromatography (TLC) with solvent system C.2 Taxonomic descriptions 2.1 Porina byssophila(Körb. ex Hepp) Zahlbr., Nat. Pflanzenfam: 66(1903) (Fig. 1)
Thallus epilithic, olive-green to dark green, vivid green in water, rough, continous, ecorticate. Prothallus invisible. Perithecia intensive, hemi- spherical, covered by the thallus, 0.25–0.45 mm diam, with a rounded or mildly pointed top. Ostiole unspectacular or minutely papular. Involucrellum apical, purple-brown, K+ dark brown. Hyphae layer beside involucrellum dark greenish grey to green- black, 20–25 µm thick, containing algae. Centrum subglobose. Excipulum dark gray, 12.5–25 µm thick. Paraphyses simple, slender, 0.8 μm wide. Periphyses absent. Asci unitunicate, fusiform, 8-spored, 62–70 µm×13–15 µm, rounded to subacute at the apex. Ascospores hyaline, 3 or 5-septate, fusiform, usually with rounded ends, randomly arranged in the asci, (20–)23–30(–35) µm×4.5–5 µm. Conidia fusiform, 2.0–3.5 µm×0.8 µm.
Chemistry: Thallus and medulla K–, C–, KC–. Involucrellum K+ dark brown. No lichen products detected by TLC.
Substrate and ecology: On the aquatic and semi- aquatic calcareous or siliceous rocks.
Distribution: Great Britain, Ireland, Central Europe. New to China.
Specimens Examined: China. Shandong: Mu- ping County, Mt. Kunyu, 326 m, 16 Oct. 2017, Q. Ren 5324, 5327 (SDNU).
Note: Porina fluminea P. M. McCarthy & P. N. Johnson resembles P. byssophila but differs in having only 3-septate ascospores, presence of the purple- violet to purple-brown pigment in the involucrellum, and growing on the siliceous rocks. Another similar species P. linearis Leight. differs in the endolithic thallus.2.2 Sarcogyne privigna(Ach.) A. Massal., Geneac. lich. (Verona): 10(1854) (Fig. 2)
Thallus saxicolous, endolithic, inconspicuous. Photobiont chlorococcoid, 13 µm in diam. Apothecia round to ± irregular, 0.3–1.1 mm diam, disk red brown to purple, flat or concave. Pruina absent. Disk margin obviously raised, thick, black. True exciple carbonized, containing abundant crystals. Apothecium lecideine, epithecium yellow-brown, 10–12 µm high; hymenium colorless, 60–85 µm high; hypothecium pale brown, 20–30 µm high; proper exciple colorless, 15–20 µm wide. Paraphyses simple, long-celled, 2 µm wide, Asci 50–57 µm×10–16 µm, mostly 200-spored. Ascospores simple, hyaline, cylindrical to oblong, 4–5 µm×1– 1.5 µm. Conidia not observed.
Chemistry: Medulla and apothecia K–, C–, KC–, Pd–. No lichen products detected by TLC.
Substrate and ecology: On the siliceous rock near the stream.
Distribution: Europe, North America, Asia, Africa, Australia. New to China.
Specimen examined: China. Shandong: Muping County, Mt. Kunyu, 210 m, 16 Oct. 2017, Q. Ren 5202 (SDNU).
Note: Sarcogyne clavus DC. differs S. privigna in its larger apothecia (up to 6 mm diam), taller hyme- nium (85–115 µm), dark brown hypothecium, thicker and crenulate exciple, and longer ascospores (4–6 µm)[8, 10, 22].2.3 Trimmatothelopsis versipellis(Nyl.) Zschacke, Rabenh. Krypt.-Fl., Edn 2 (Leipzig) 9.1(1): 593 (1934) (Fig. 3)
Thallus crustose, epilithic, red-brown. Cortex pale brown, 30–40 μm high. Photobiont chloroccocoid. Medulla gray, 20–25 μm high. Ascomata first perithe- cioid then aspicilioid. Apothecia reddish brown to black, initially immersed, erumpent when mature, 0.3– 0.5 mm diam, with a carbonized external wall and a small-opening disk. Epithecium colorless, 10–15 µm high; hymenium colorless, 100–130 µm high, KOH/ I+ blue; hypothecium inconspicuous. Paraphyses simple, slender, 1.5–2 μm wide. Asci 65–100 μm×17.5–25 μm, with a non-amyloid tholus. Ascospores simple, 4.5– 6.25 μm×2.5–3 μm.
Chemistry: Thallus K-, C-, KC-. Hyme- nium KOH/I+ blue. No lichen products detected by TLC.
Substrate and ecology. Siliceous rocks beside streams.
Distribution. France. New to China.
Specimen examined: China. Shandong: Muping, Mt. Kunyu, 280 m, 16 Oct. 2017, Q. Ren 5389 (SDNU).
Note: It is a new genus to China. Trimmato- thelopsis rhizobola Nyl. differs in a brown squamulose thallus with rhizines. T. gordensis Nav.-Ros. & Cl. Rouxarediffers in an endolithic thallus and perithecia with a prominent ostiole[16‒17].Acknowledgments
We would like to thank Dr. A. Aptroot (ABL Herbarium, Soest, the Netherlands) for help during this research.
LI M, REN Z J, YANG X Y. Bryophyte flora of Mt. Kunyu[M]. Shandong: Shandong Friendship Publishing House, 2017: 1-2. (in Chinese).
ZHAO Z T, YU F Q. An investigation of the macrofungi of Mt. Kunyu, Shandong Province[J]. Shandong Sci, 2002, 15(2): 3. (in Chinese).
GENNADII U, JAN V, IRINA U. Genus Porina (Porinaceae, Lichenes) in the lichen flora of the Caucasus[J]. Bot žurnal, 2017, 102(4): 563-576.
McCARTHY P M. Key to the saxicolous taxa of Porina[J]. Licheno-logist, 2000, 32(1): 1-13.
McCARTHY P M, KANTVILAS G. New species of Porina Müll. Arg. (Trichotheliaceae), mainly from Tasmanian rainforest[J]. Lichenologist, 1993, 25(1): 137-146.
McCARTHY P M. Saxicolous species of Porina Müll. Arg. (Tricho-theliaceae) in the southern Hemisphere[J]. Bibl Lichenol, 1993, 52(1): 1-134.
LÜCKING R, VĚZDA A. Taxonomic studies in foliicolous species of the genus Porina (lichenized Ascomycotina:Trichotheliaceae):Ⅱ. The Porina epiphylla group[J]. Willdenowia, 1998, 25(1/2): 181-225.
FLETCHER A, HAWKSWORTH D L. The lichens of Great Britain and Ireland[M]. London: British Lichen Society, 2009: 829-830.
WEI J C. An Enumeration of Lichens in China[M]. Beijing: Inter-national Academic Publishers, 1991: 208.
KNUDSEN K, STANGLEY S M. Lichen flora of the Greater Sonoran Desert Region 3[M]. Tempe, Arizona: Lichens Unlimited, 2007: 289-296.
McCARTHY P M, KANTVILAS G. Two new species of Sarcogyne (lichenised Ascomycota:Acarosporaceae) from central and southern Australia[J]. Jardín Botánico de Adelaida, 2013, 26(5): 15-21.
NURTAI L, LERRY K, ABDULLA A. Sarcogyne saphyniana sp. nov., a saxicolous lichen from northwestern China[J]. Mycotaxon, 2016, 131(1): 135-139. DOI:10.5248/131.135
WANG J H, LI E W, WEI J C. A preliminary study of the isopreny-lated chromones from lichenized fungus Sarcogyne asciparva[J]. Mycosystema, 2017, 36(1): 1-11.
MAGNUSSON A H. Lichens from central Asia, Part Ⅰ[M]. Stockholm: Aktiebolaget Thule, 1940: 70-71.
MAGNUSSON A H. Lichens from central Asia, Part Ⅱ[M]. Stockholm: Aktiebolaget Thule, 1944: 30.
KNUDSEN K, LENDEMER J C. A new perspective on Melanophloea, Thelocarpella and Trimmatothelopsis:Species previously placed in multiple families are united within a single genus in the Acarospo-raceae[J]. Bryologist, 2016, 119(3): 266-279. DOI:10.1639/0007-2745-119.3.266
CÉCILE P G, MONNAT J Y, PERE N R, et al. Trimmatothelopsis versipellis Découverte de stations dans le Finistère (France), position phylogénétique et conséquences taxonomiques[J]. Bull Soc Linn Prov, 2014, 65(12): 373-875.
FLETCHER A, HAWKSWORTH D L. The lichens of Great Britain and Ireland[M]. London: British Lichen Society, 2009: 12-13.
ORANGE A. A new freshwater Porina (Porinaceae, Ostropales) from Great Britain[J]. Lichenologist, 2015, 47(6): 351-358. DOI:10.1017/S0024282915000365
McCARTHY P M, JOHNSON P N. New and interesting lichens records from Australia[J]. Nova Hedw, 1995, 61: 497-508.
DOGRU Z, GUVENC S. Lichenized and lichenicolous fungi from Bursa Province new to Turkey[J]. Mycotaxon, 2007, 102(10): 389-394.
SEPPELT R D, NIMIS P L, CASTELLO M. The genus Sarcogyne (Acarosporaceae) in Antarctica[J]. Lichenologist, 2007, 30(3): 249-258.
DAMIEN E, PAUL D. Revision of Trimmatothele (Verrucariaceae), and description of Oevstedalia for Trimmatothelopsis antarctica, a new lichen genus with true ascoconidia[J]. Mycol Prog, 2004, 3(3): 229-236. DOI:10.1007/s11557-006-0093-9