2. 中国科学院华南植物园, 中国科学院植物资源保护与可持续利用重点实验室, 广州 510650;
3. 中国科学院西双版纳热带植物园生物多样性保护中心, 云南 勐腊 666303
2. Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China;
3. Center for Integrative Conservation, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Mengla 666303, Yunnan, China
Ophiorrhiza L. (Rubiaceae) is an Indo-Malesian genus consisting of 200–300 species of annual or perennial herbs or rarely sub-shrubs that could be distinguished from other genera by their obcordate and compressed capsules that are dehiscent with two valves along a transverse slit at the top[1-5]. China is one of distribution centers of the genus, with 70 species (49 endemics) mainly in Yunnan and Guangxi. However, circumscriptions of most Ophiorrhiza species from China are based on limited field observations and insufficient knowledge of their flowers[3-4]. There were some species with taxonomic problems that need to be sovled[5-10].
Ophiorrhiza hispida Hook. f. is one of such species. It was described by Hooker in 1880 based on the collections from Khasia Mountain, Northeastern India, and was firstly reported in China by Lo (1990) based on the collections (C. W. Wang 74855, 76767, 77907, G. D. Tao 13025, S. H. Chen 10261, S. J. Yi 136, S. S. Sin 324, T. T. Yu 15920, Y.H. Li 12321, Y. Tsiang 12518, 12511) from Yunnan. Lo provided a detailed description and noted that the short-styled flowers and long-styled flowers were similar in corollas colour, shape and indumentum, but differed in the position of stamens and stigmas inside. Chen and Taylor  doubted its occurrence in China and pointed out the circumscription of this species by Lo did not correspond to that Deb and Mondal has described. Meanwhile, they also indicated that the plants treated as O. hispida by Lo key to O. fasciculata in Deb and Mondal' treatment. However, they failed in confirming the occurrence of this species in China and only followed the treatment of Lo.
Based on our field observations and examinations of specimens including the type materials and relevant references[2-4, 11-15], we confirmed that Chinese specimens that were identified as Ophiorrhiza hispida are misidentification of O. pseudofasciculata Schanzer, a species originally described from Thailand.
Ophiorrhiza pseudofasciculata Schanzer 近簇花蛇根草(新拟) Fig. 1: A-E.
Ophiorrhiza pseudofasciculata Schanzer in Thai Forest Bull. (Bot.) 33: 163. f. 3. 2005. Type: Thailand. Nan: J. F. Maxwell 98-805. (holotype BKF; isotype CMU).
O. hispida auct. non Hook. f.: Lo in Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 10(2): 32. 1990 et in Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 71(1): 134. f. 32, 11–17; Chen in Fl. Yunnan. 15: 65. 2003; Chen et Tarlor in Fl. of China 19: 270; Zhu et Yan in Native Seed Plants in Xishuangbanna of Yunnan 281. 2012.
Discussion: Lo (1999) described that the corollas of both long-styled and short-styled flower forms of Ophorrhiza hispida from China were similar. However, after examining specimens that identified as this species in Herbaria and field investigation, we found the indumentum within corollas are quite different between these two forms. The corollas of long-styled flowers are the same with Lo's discriptions that with villous ring inside the middle of tubes, but it is only sparsely pubescent in short-styled flowers. Both flower forms are included within the circumscription of O. pseudofasciculata.
Ophiorrhiza pseudofasciculata resembles O. hispida (Fig. 1: F) by sharing herbaceous habits, moderately villous or hispid stems and congestedcymose inflorescences, but differs from the latter by its stipules, bracts and corollas. It is also similar to O. fasciculata as keyed out by Chen and Taylor. However, it is distinctly different from the latter in flower characters. A morphological comparison among these three species is presented in Table 1.
Conservation status: In China, Ophiorrhiza pseudofasciculata is widely distributed in southern and southwestern Yunnan. This species usually grows along rivers under dense evergreen forests with good reproduction rate and habitat condition. Therefore O. pseudofasciculata is considered to be least concern (LC) according to the IUCN categories and criteria .
Additional specimens examined: China. Yunnan: Cangyuan, Y. H. Li 324 (KUN), 12321 (KUN); Jinghong, C. W. Wang 77907 (KUN); Lancang, L. Wu 4857 (BNU, CSFI, CSH), C. W Wang 76767 (KUN); Lianghe, G. D. Tao 13025 (KUN), L. Wu 4920 (BNU, CSFI, CSH); Lincang, S. S. Sin 324 (IBSC); Mangshi, Y. F. Deng 24301 (BNU, IBSC); Menghai, C. W. Wang 74855 (IBSC); Mengla, Exped. Mengla 23938 (HITBC); Menglian, S.H. Chen 10261 (IBSC); Pingbian, P. I. Mao 383 (IBSC); Ruili, L. Wu 4953 (BNU, CSFI, CSH), S. J. Pei 14064 (HITBC); Shunning County, T. T. Yu 15920 (KUN, IBSC); Xishuangbannan, G. D. Tao 44902 (HITBC); Yongde, E. D. Liu 5702 (KUN), 5726 (KUN); Zhenyuan, Y. Tsiang 12518 (IBSC), 12511 (IBSC).Acknowledgments: The authors are grateful to the staffs of CSFI, CSH, HITBC, IBK, IBSC, KUN and PE for permission to examine their specimens. We also thank Tian Huai-zhen (School of Life Sciences, East China Normal University) for improving the language.
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